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體育攝影中的快速對焦的技巧

在體育攝影中,對焦是一門很難掌握的技巧,這是因為體育攝影的被攝對象都具有很強的動感,速度很快,它不大可能允許你去慢慢地琢磨,精益求精地對焦。專業的體育攝影記者都是採取追蹤對焦:他們不斷改變焦距,隨時讓競賽者在取景框中保持清晰的影像。但是,這項技巧初學攝影者是很難練得爐火純青的。

  比較容易的方法就是借助於相機上的自動對焦系統。雖然自動對焦系統可以迅速地對好焦點,但如果使用方法有誤,就不能發揮它應有的效用。也就是說,只有把被攝體恰到好處地留在取景窗中央的測 距框內,才能達到准 確對焦的目的。要是相機配備的鏡頭焦距不是很長,視角較大,把運動的被攝體 安排在取景框中央的測距框內,還算容易;如果相機所配備 的鏡頭是200毫米以上的長焦距鏡頭,由於視角較小,既要追蹤被攝體,又要對準測距框,可能會感到很吃力。為了適應這種場合,不妨改變上述習慣,可暫時不考慮取景框的範 圍如何,只利用測距框追蹤被攝 體,這樣在感覺上可能會輕鬆一 些。假如想把被攝運動員拍在畫面中央以外的位置,而且還要利用自動測距系統時,應該利用對焦自動鎖定裝置,讓焦點固定住。要是被攝體呈激烈移動狀,時間上不容許利用鎖定裝置,而構圖又非要求把被攝體擺在畫面中央以外的位置不可,此時就必須解除自動對焦,而改為手動對焦。

  拍體育照片時還有一種常用的對焦方法,那就是陷阱調焦,即當被攝體進入預定焦點時隨即按下相機的快門。一些先進的相機就具有這類性能。陷阱調焦很適用於體育攝影,如用此方 法來拍攝跳高運動員飛過橫杆的動作就十分理想。拍攝時,可以先把焦點調在運動員可能越 過橫杆的某一點,然後把焦點鎖定,使其不再前後移動,最後視運動員飛越橫杆時的情況按下 快門,即可拍攝到清晰度很高的照片。

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